It is important to clean your teeth for two minutes, twice a day - in the morning and especially last thing at night. Usually two minutes is enough to remove plaque and to clean properly. Some people find using a stop-watch or timer useful as two minutes is often longer than you think. If you eat or drink certain foods you may need to clean more often.
There are many different oral care products you can get today. Your dentist or hygienist will be able to recommend the best toothbrush and toothpaste for you to use, as well as the best way to clean between your teeth.
It is usually recommended that adults use a toothbrush with a small- to medium-sized head with multi-tufted, soft to medium filaments (bristles). These filaments should be round ended and made from nylon.
Some people prefer to use an electric toothbrush. They are especially useful if you have limited movement or find cleaning particularly difficult. These toothbrushes usually have heads which either vibrate or oscillate and pulsate. Some electric toothbrushes are meant to be thrown away when the battery runs down, and some are rechargeable. You can buy electric toothbrushes from your local chemist, electrical retailer or dentist. Electric toothbrushes with oscillating and pulsating heads have been proven to be the most effective. Many electric toothbrushes have two-minute timers built in to help you brush for the correct amount of time.
It is just as important for children to use the correct toothbrush. Look for a small-headed toothbrush with soft nylon bristles, suitable for the age of your child. There are many novelty toothbrushes for children that help encourage them to brush for the correct length of time. There are also electric toothbrushes that have been specially designed for children to use. Children under the age of 7 should be supervised while brushing.
There are many toothpastes, and some are designed for different needs. There are toothpastes for gum health, sensitive teeth and for smokers, ones with anti-bacterial agents, and others which help to restore the natural whiteness of your teeth. Your dentist can recommend the most suitable toothpaste for your needs.
Most toothpastes contain a certain amount of fluoride, which has been proven to reduce tooth decay considerably. Most dentists recommend using fluoride toothpaste to prevent decay.
Yes. Fluoride has been proven to reduce dental decay by at least 40%, so everyone should be encouraged to use fluoride toothpaste. There may already be fluoride in your drinking water. Research has shown that children living in areas that don't have fluoride in the drinking water have more dental decay than children living in areas that do have fluoride in the drinking water. It is important to use only a small, pea-sized amount of toothpaste for children, as they are likely to swallow some of it. All children up to three years old should use a toothpaste with a fluoride level of at least 1000ppm (parts per million). After three years old, everyone should use a family toothpaste that has 1350ppm to 1500ppm of fluoride. After brushing you should spit out the toothpaste rather than rinsing, to prevent the fluoride being washed away. If your dentist feels that you have a high risk of dental decay, they may recommend and prescribe toothpaste with a higher fluoride content. This high level of fluoride can offer more protection to people more at risk of decay.
There are toothpastes which can help to remove staining. These are often called ‘whitening' toothpastes. It is important to realise that these toothpastes can only help you to restore the original shade of your teeth and will not change their natural colour. If you feel you need something stronger to whiten your teeth, talk to your dentist about how this could be done. If you are a smoker, there are special smokers' toothpastes that will remove the staining that can build up over time.
There are several toothpastes that contain ‘desensitising agents' to help reduce the pain of sensitive teeth. Some people find that rubbing this toothpaste along the affected area and leaving it on overnight helps ease the discomfort.
Yes, there are several toothpastes that contain special mineral salts and plant extracts. They are made of only natural ingredients and flavoring. Some products are produced without animal testing, and some are suitable for vegetarians and vegans. However, sometimes these toothpastes do not contain fluoride.
Total care toothpastes contain a number of ingredients to make them an effective ‘all-round' toothpaste. They contain anti-bacterial agents, ingredients which help control plaque and prevent gum disease, fluoride to help prevent tooth decay and flavours which help to freshen the breath. They may also contain whitening or tartar-control ingredients.
Brushing alone only cleans three of the five surfaces of your teeth, so it is important that you also clean between your teeth every day. Your dentist or hygienist will be able to show you how.
To clean the small gaps between your teeth you can use special ‘interdental' brushes. These can be on long or short handles for easier use and are generally colour coded for the different-sized gaps between your teeth. Ask your dentist or hygienist for advice on how to use these products correctly and safely.
Dental floss and tape
There are several different types of dental floss or tape, including mint-flavoured, wax-coated and ones containing fluoride. Many people prefer tape to floss, as it is wider and can be gentler on the gums. You can also get floss ‘harps', and these have the floss attached to a handle which may make the floss easier to use. Water jets
These are another way of cleaning in between the teeth using a high-pressure jet of water. Some people with bridges and implants find them particularly useful.
These contain a dye. After brushing and cleaning interdentally, you can use a disclosing tablet or solution to dye any plaque that hasn't been removed. This can help to show any places you are missing when brushing. You can easily remove the dye afterwards by brushing.
Many people use a mouthwash as part of their daily oral health routine. Some mouthwashes contain an anti-bacterial ingredient to help reduce plaque and prevent gum disease. Mouthwashes may contain fluoride to help prevent decay and all will help to freshen your breath and wash away particles of food.
Some mouthwashes contain alcohol because it helps to enhance the taste, helps in the cleansing action and adds to the antibacterial effect. However, some people find alcohol mouthwashes too strong and prefer a milder alternative that is alcohol free. Mouthwashes containing alcohol should be kept away from children.
Some mouthwashes, especially ones containing Chlorhexidine, are particularly effective at treating gum infections. They are also very effective at treating other mouth problems, such as those following a tooth extraction or when a wisdom tooth is coming through. You must not overuse these mouthwashes and not use them over a long period. This is because they can cause staining, although this can be easily removed by the dental hygienist. Make sure you always follow your dentist's and the manufacturer's instructions.
Some mouthwashes contain anti-bacterial ingredients which work against the bacteria responsible for causing bad breath and plaque.
Denture fixatives are products which help to stick or hold a denture in place and to stop it moving around and causing irritation and sores. Fixatives can come in different forms, including creams, powders and strips.
Dentures are custom made to fit your mouth and you shouldn't need to use a denture fixative. However, over time as your mouth shrinks, the denture may become loose and may not fit as well. If this happens some people may prefer to use a fixative in the short term before they have the denture replaced with a new and better-fitting one.
Dental erosion is the loss of tooth enamel caused by acid attack. Eventually the enamel can be worn away, exposing the dentine underneath which may lead to pain and sensitivity.
The use of a good fluoride toothpaste (1350 to 1500ppm fluoride) will help to put back the minerals lost from your teeth and to strengthen the enamel. There are specialist ‘enamel formula' toothpastes you can use if you feel that your diet is high in acid and you think that you may be at risk of acid erosion.
You should also try to cut down as much as possible on the amount of acidic foods and drinks that you have. These foods and drinks include wine, fruit juices, smoothies, fruit teas, fruit and fizzy drinks.
Often bad breath is a short-term problem caused by smoking, or eating or drinking something that has a strong smell. The use of products designed to fight bad breath will help to stop this.
Long-term bad breath could be a symptom of a dental problem such as gum disease. So if the bad breath continues you should ask your dentist for advice. Bad-breath products will only mask the smell and will not remove any underlying problem.
Good brushing and cleaning in between the teeth is the most important way of controlling bad breath. In the short term you can use mouth rinses, sugar-free gum and sugar-free mints. Many of the bacteria causing bad breath live on your tongue, so brushing your tongue or using a tongue scraper will also help.
Dry mouth or ‘xerostomia' is a condition which affects the flow of saliva, causing your mouth to feel dry.
There are a number of products designed to provide moisture and comfort. These include rinses, toothpastes, gels and sprays. If you prefer, you can also get lozenges and chewing gums for when you are out and about. Some people also find chewing sugar-free gum helps to increase the flow of saliva and reduce the problems.
If you chew sugar-free gum for 10 minutes after eating or drinking anything, this can help your saliva to cancel out the acid more quickly. The acid is produced when we eat or drink, and it can cause tooth decay and dental erosion. By chewing sugar-free gum, you can shorten the time it takes for your saliva to cancel out the acid.
Probiotics are living micro-organisms - usually ‘friendly' bacteria - and are most often used to promote healthy digestion.
Using an oral probiotic may help to keep up the balance between the ‘friendly' bacteria in your mouth and the harmful bacteria which can cause plaque build-up, gum disease and bad breath.
These oral probiotics are often sold as lozenges and you dissolve them slowly in your mouth after brushing and flossing.
The British Dental Health Foundation has an accreditation scheme which checks the claims made by manufacturers. Look out for the British Dental Health Foundation approved logo on packaging, which shows that the claims on the packaging have been clinically proven and the product does what it says.